Springer Open  Latest Articles
http://www.springeropen.com/
The latest research articles published by Springer Open20161209T12:00:00ZApplication of dosimetry tools for the assessment of ecigarette aerosol and cigarette smoke generated on two different in vitro exposure systemsThe diluted aerosols from a cigarette (3R4F) and an ecigarette (Vype ePen) were compared in two commercially available in vitro exposure systems: the Borgwaldt RM20S and Vitrocell VC10. Dosimetry was assessed by measuring deposited aerosol mass in the exposure chambers via quartz crystal microbalances, followed by quantification of deposited nicotine on their surface. The two exposure systems were shown to generate the same aerosols (predilution) within analytically quantified nicotine concentration levels (p = 0.105). The dosimetry methods employed enabled assessment of the diluted aerosol at the exposure interface. At a common dilution, the per puff ecigarette aerosol deposited mass was greater than cigarette smoke. At four dilutions, the RM20S produced deposited mass ranging 0.1–0.5 µg/cm
2
/puff for cigarette and 0.1–0.9 µg/cm
2
/puff for ecigarette; the VC10 ranged 0.4–2.1 µg/cm
2
/puff for cigarette and 0.3–3.3 µg/cm
2
/puff for ecigarette. In contrast nicotine delivery was much greater from the cigarette than from the ecigarette at a common dilution, but consistent with the differing nicotine percentages in the respective aerosols. On the RM20S, nicotine ranged 2.5–16.8 ng/cm
2
/puff for the cigarette and 1.2–5.6 ng/cm
2
/puff for the ecigarette. On the VC10, nicotine concentration ranged 10.0–93.9 ng/cm
2
/puff for the cigarette and 4.0–12.3 ng/cm
2
/puff for the ecigarette. The deposited aerosol from a conventional cigarette and an ecigarette in vitro are compositionally different; this emphasises the importance of understanding and characterising different product aerosols using dosimetry tools. This will enable easier extrapolation and comparison of preclinical data and consumer use studies, to help further explore the reduced risk potential of next generation nicotine products.Graphical abstractA cigarette and an ecigarette (top left) were assessed on two different in vitro exposure systems, the Borgwaldt RM20S (top right) and the VC 10 (bottom right). Compositionally the product aerosols were different, but there was no difference between the same product on different machines (bottom left).
http://journal.chemistrycentral.com/content/10/1/74
Jason AdamsonDavid ThorneBenjamin ZainuddinAndrew BaxterJohn McAugheyMarianna GaçaChemistry Central Journal 2016, 10:7420161209T00:00:00Z10.1186/s1306501602219/content/figures/s1306501602219toc.gifChemistry Central Journal1752153X107420161209T00:00:00ZXMLUtilizing maximal frequent itemsets and social network analysis for HIV data analysisAcquired immune deficiency syndrome is a deadly disease which is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This virus attacks patients immune system and effects its ability to fight against diseases. Developing effective medicine requires understanding the life cycle and replication ability of the virus. HIV1 protease enzyme is used to cleave an octamer peptide into peptides which are used to create proteins by the virus. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method is proposed for understanding important patterns in octamer’s cleavability. This feature extraction method is based on data mining techniques which are used to find important relations inside a dataset by comprehensively analyzing the given data. As demonstrated in this paper, using the extracted information in the classification process yields important results which may be taken into consideration when developing a new medicine. We have used 746 and 1625, Impens and schilling data instances from the 746dataset. Besides, we have performed social network analysis as a complementary alternative method.
http://www.jcheminf.com/content/8/1/71
Yunuscan KoçakTansel ÖzyerReda AlhajjJournal of Cheminformatics 2016, 8:7120161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s1332101601849/content/figures/s1332101601849toc.gifJournal of Cheminformatics1758294687120161209T12:00:00ZXMLExistence of least energy signchanging solution for the nonlinear Schrödinger system with two types of nonlocal termsIn the paper, we are concerned with the system of KirchhoffSchrödingerPoisson system under certain assumptions on
V
1
,
V
2
, K and f. We are interested in the existence of least energy signchanging solutions to the system on
R
N
. Because two kinds of nonlocal terms
ϕ
u
and
∫
R
N

∇
u

2
are involved in the system, the methods are different from the Kirchhoff or the SchrödingerPoisson system. The two nonlocal terms
∫
R
N

∇
u

2
and
ϕ
u
make that the functional
J
(
u
+
+
u
−
)
≠
J
(
u
+
)
+
J
(
u
−
)
. Moreover, the nonlocal term
ϕ
u
does not have the convergence property because of the assumption
V
2
. In addition, the convergence of these two nonlocal terms are different. In the present paper, we unify the increasing property conditions on signchanging solution in previous papers. We construct a new homotopy operator and then weaken the assumption that f is
C
1
to that of f being only continuous. We prove that the system has a signchanging solution via a constraint variational method combining with Brouwer’s degree theory.MSC: 47J30, 34B15.
http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2016/1/220
Yuhua LiYawen HaoBoundary Value Problems 2016, 2016:22020161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s136610160728y/content/figures/s136610160728ytoc.gifBoundary Value Problems16872770201622020161209T12:00:00ZXMLNew delayrangedependent exponential stability criteria for certain neutral differential equations with interval discrete and distributed timevarying delaysIn this research, we investigate the problem of delaydependent exponential stability analysis for certain neutral differential equations with discrete and distributed timevarying delays. The timevarying delays are continuous functions belonging to the given interval delays, which mean that the lower and upper bounds for the timevarying delays are available. The restrictions on the derivative of interval timevarying delays are needed. Based on a class of novel augmented LyapunovKrasovskii functionals, a model transformation, the decomposition technique of constant coefficients, the LeibnizNewton formula, and utilization of a zero equation, new delayrangedependent exponential stability criteria are derived in terms of the linear matrix inequality (LMI) for the equations considered. Numerical examples suggest for the results given to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement over some existing methods.
http://www.advancesindifferenceequations.com/content/2016/1/324
Watcharin ChatbupapanKanit MukdasaiAdvances in Difference Equations 2016, 2016:32420161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s1366201610465/content/figures/s1366201610465toc.gifAdvances in Difference Equations16871847201632420161209T12:00:00ZXMLLipschitz stability of differential equations with noninstantaneous impulsesNonlinear differential equations with noninstantaneous impulses are studied. The impulses start abruptly at some points and their actions continue on given finite intervals. We pursue the study of Lipschitz stability using Lyapunov functions. Some sufficient conditions for Lipschitz stability, uniform Lipschitz stability, and uniform global Lipschitz stability are obtained. Examples are given to illustrate the results.MSC: 34A37, 34D20.
http://www.advancesindifferenceequations.com/content/2016/1/322
Snezhana HristovaRadoslava TerzievaAdvances in Difference Equations 2016, 2016:32220161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s1366201610456/content/figures/s1366201610456toc.gifAdvances in Difference Equations16871847201632220161209T12:00:00ZXMLImproved results on perturbed TS fuzzy systems with mixed delays using geometric sequence division related partitioning methodsThis paper addresses improved stability results for TS fuzzy systems with mixed delays and nonlinear perturbations. By introducing the geometric sequence division (GSD) method, the discrete delay interval can be separated into multiple subintervals with unequal lengths based on the common ratio α. Meanwhile integral partitioning method is applied to deal with the distributed delay. A LyapunovKrasovskii functional (LKF) is newly established with augmented factors and triple integral terms which are constructed by means of the length of every subintervals. In addition, in order to reduce the enlargement when we deal with the estimation of the LKF derivative, a freematrixbased integral inequality, an extended reciprocal convex combination, and free weight matrices techniques are employed. A stability analysis of the delayed TS fuzzy systems is presented with much less conservative criteria. At the end numerical examples are given to demonstrate the significant improvements of this proposed design.
http://www.advancesindifferenceequations.com/content/2016/1/323
Hao ChenAdvances in Difference Equations 2016, 2016:32320161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s1366201610447/content/figures/s1366201610447toc.gifAdvances in Difference Equations16871847201632320161209T12:00:00ZXMLA triointeraction theory for Madden–Julian oscillationThe Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical atmospheric intraseasonal variability and a primary source of predictability for global subseasonal prediction. Understanding the origin and perpetuation of the MJO has eluded scientists for decades. The present paper starts with a brief review of progresses in theoretical studies of the MJO and a discussion of the essential MJO characteristics that a theory should explain. A general theoretical model framework is then described in an attempt to integrate the major existing theoretical models: the frictionally coupled Kelvin–Rossby wave, the moisture mode, the frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, the MJO skeleton, and the gravity wave interference, which are shown to be special cases of the general MJO model. The last part of the present paper focuses on a special form of triointeraction theory in terms of the general model with a simplified Betts–Miller (BM) cumulus parameterization scheme. This triointeraction theory extends the Matsuno–Gill theory by incorporating a triointeraction among convection, moisture, and waveboundary layer (BL) dynamics. The model is shown to produce robust largescale characteristics of the observed MJO, including the coupled Kelvin–Rossby wave structure, slow eastward propagation (~5 m/s) over warm pool, the planetary (zonal) scale circulation, the BL lowpressure and moisture convergence preceding major convection, and amplification/decay over warm/cold sea surface temperature (SST) regions. The BL moisture convergence feedback plays a central role in coupling equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating, selecting a preferred eastward propagation, and generating instability. The moisture feedback can enhance Rossby wave component, thereby substantially slowing down eastward propagation. With the triointeraction theory, a number of fundamental issues of MJO dynamics are addressed: why the MJO possesses a mixed Kelvin–Rossby wave structure and how the Kelvin and Rossby waves, which propagate in opposite directions, could couple together with convection and select eastward propagation; what makes the MJO move eastward slowly in the eastern hemisphere, resulting in the 30–60day periodicity; why MJO amplifies over the warm pool ocean and decays rapidly across the dateline. Limitation and ramifications of the model results to general circulation modeling of MJO are discussed.
http://www.geoscienceletters.com/content/3/1/34
Bin WangFei LiuGuosen ChenGeoscience Letters 2016, 3:3420161209T12:00:00Z10.1186/s405620160066z/content/figures/s405620160066ztoc.gifGeoscience Letters2196409233420161209T12:00:00ZXMLBlockchain application and outlook in the banking industryBlockchain technology is a core, underlying technology with promising application prospects in the banking industry. On one hand, the banking industry in China is facing the impact of interest rate liberalization and profit decline caused by the narrowing interestrate spread. On the other hand, it is also affected by economic transformation, Internet development, and financial innovations. Hence, the banking industry requires urgent transformation and is seeking new growth avenues. As such, blockchains could revolutionize the underlying technology of the payment clearing and credit information systems in banks, thus upgrading and transforming them. Blockchain applications also promote the formation of “multicenter, weakly intermediated” scenarios, which will enhance the efficiency of the banking industry. However, despite the permissionless and selfgoverning nature of blockchains, the regulation and actual implementation of a decentralized system are problems that remain to be resolved. Therefore, we propose the urgent establishment of a “regulatory sandbox” and the development of industry standards.
http://www.jfinswufe.com/content/2/1/24
Ye GuoChen LiangFinancial Innovation 2016, 2:2420161209T00:00:00Z10.1186/s4085401600349/content/figures/s4085401600349toc.gifFinancial Innovation2199473022420161209T00:00:00ZXMLSerum concentrations of mood stabilizers are associated with memory, but not other cognitive domains in psychosis spectrum disorders; explorative analyses in a naturalistic settingBackground:
Mood stabilizers like lithium and anticonvulsants are used in bipolar and related psychotic disorders. There is a lack of knowledge of the relationship of these medications and cognition in the psychosis spectrum. We studied the association between serum concentration of mood stabilizers and cognitive performance in a wellcharacterized sample of bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Methods:
Serum concentrations of valproate, lamotrigine, and lithium were analyzed for associations to performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 167) and in a combined sample of individuals with bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 217). Linear regression with adjustments for gender, age, and symptom levels of depression, mania, and psychosis were applied for the association analyses.
Results:
There were negative associations between serum levels of valproate and short term delayed recall (bipolar: p = 0.043; combined: p = 0.044) and working memory (bipolar: p = 0.043). A positive association was suggested between serum level of lithium and working memory (bipolar: p = 0.039). There were no other significant relationships between serum levels of valproate, lamotrigine, or lithium and neuropsychological test performance in neither the bipolar disorder nor the combined group.
Conclusions:
Serum levels of mood stabilizers were unrelated to cognitive performance in most domains, indicating that higher dose does not lead to broader cognitive impairments in bipolar and related psychotic disorder patients. However, worsened memory with increasing levels of valproate suggests cautious dosing of anticonvulsants, while increasing lithium level seems to be associated with improved memory. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the explorative, naturalistic design.
http://www.journalbipolardisorders.com/content/4/1/24
Nils SteenMonica AasCarmen SimonsenIngrid DiesetMartin TesliMari NerhusErlend GardsjordRagni MørchIngrid AgartzIngrid MelleAnja VaskinnOlav SpigsetOle AndreassenInternational Journal of Bipolar Disorders 2016, 4:2420161209T00:00:00Z10.1186/s403450160067z/content/figures/s403450160067ztoc.gifInternational Journal of Bipolar Disorders2194751142420161209T00:00:00ZXMLSynthesis of visible light active doped TiO
2 for the degradation of organic pollutants—methylene blue and glyphosateBackground:
A simple hydrothermal process was applied to synthesize the doped TiO
2
particles with different concentrations as well as different metal ions (Mn, Ce and La).
Methods:
The synthesis of MndopedTiO
2
nanoparticles was done by using a hydrothermal method from hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous solution. The photocatalytic activities were checked by studying the degradation of two model organic pollutants.
Results:
The material was characterized by Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV–Visible spectroscopy. The Xray diffraction pattern studied for doped TiO
2
particles suggests the anatase phase with a crystalline nature. Doped TiO
2
particles showed a porous and complex nature with a highly rough surface. The photocatalytic activity of Mn Ce and Ladoped TiO
2
with different metalion concentrations of 0.150.60% show that the degradation rate of all of the pollutants increases with an increase in the dopant concentration from 0.15 to 0.45%, and a further increase in the dopant concentration decreased the degradation rate.
Conclusions:
The results indicate that TiO2 with a concentration of 0.45% for all metal ions (Mn, Ce and La) shows the highest activity. Among studied dopent TiO2 with Mn (0.45%) showed the best degradation activity.
http://www.jastjournal.com/content/7/1/29
Khalid UmarAzmi ArisHilal AhmadTabassum ParveenJafariah JaafarZaiton MajidA. ReddyJuhaizah TalibJournal of Analytical Science and Technology 2016, 7:2920161209T00:00:00Z10.1186/s4054301601092/content/figures/s4054301601092toc.gifJournal of Analytical Science and Technology2093337172920161209T00:00:00ZXML