Differential Equations with Nonlocal and Functional Conditions
Differential equations with nonlocal and functional conditions have become an active area of research. Their study is driven not only by theoretical interest, but also to the fact that these type of problems occur naturally when modeling real world applications. For example, several phenomena in engineering, physics and life sciences can be described by means of differential equations subject to nonlocal boundary conditions: one may consider problems with feedback controls, such as the steady-states of a thermostat, where a controller at one of its ends adds or removes heat, depending upon the temperature registered in another point, or phenomena with functional dependence in the equation and/or in the boundary conditions, with delays or advances, maximum or minimum arguments, such as beams where the maximum (minimum) of the deflection is attained in some interior or end point of the beam.
Edited by: Gennaro Infante, To Fu Ma and Feliz Minhos