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Characterization of the geomagnetic field and its dynamic environment using data from space-based magnetometers

The main part of the geomagnetic field arises from the Earth’s outer core. It extends to a distance of ~10 Earth radii and acts as to shield against solar and cosmic particle radiation, and determines the strength and geometry of ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems. These systems vary as Earth’s field changes due to core dynamics but are also profoundly altered during space weather events.

Understanding the processes responsible for these various magnetic field contributions and tracking their variability in time is there vital to ensure the preparedness of modern technology on ground and in space on which society increasingly depends. Most of our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations of the recent geomagnetic field has been achieved through observations from high precision magnetic satellite missions, such as Ørsted, CHAMP, and Swarm. However, a multitude of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) carry avionics magnetometers for satellite attitude determination and control. These magnetometers, by design, do not meet high precision scientific requirements, but have been shown to add valuable information in characterizing the geomagnetic field and its environment after appropriate calibration.

Edited by Claudia Stolle, Nils Olsen, Brian J. Anderson,Eelco Doornbos, 
Alexey Kuvshinov

  1. We use 20 years of continuous magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP and Swarm satellite missions, supplemented by calibrated platform magnetometer data from the CryoSat-2 satellite, to study time var...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Christopher C. Finlay and Nils Olsen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:73
  2. This study presents results of mapping three-dimensional (3-D) variations of the electrical conductivity in depths ranging from 400 to 1200 km using 6 years of magnetic data from the Swarm and CryoSat-2 satellite...

    Authors: Alexey Kuvshinov, Alexander Grayver, Lars Tøffner-Clausen and Nils Olsen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:67

    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:94

  3. This paper describes and discusses the preprocessing and calibration of the magnetic data taken by the navigational magnetometers onboard the two GRACE satellites, with focus on the almost 10 years period from...

    Authors: Nils Olsen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:62
  4. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission carries magnetometers that are dedicated to enhance the satellite’s navigation. After appropriate calibration and characterisation of ar...

    Authors: C. Stolle, I. Michaelis, C. Xiong, M. Rother, Th. Usbeck, Y. Yamazaki, J. Rauberg and K. Styp-Rekowski
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:51
  5. Models of the geomagnetic field rely on magnetic data of high spatial and temporal resolution to give an accurate picture of the Earth’s internal magnetic field and its time-dependence. The magnetic data from ...

    Authors: Clemens Kloss, Christopher C. Finlay and Nils Olsen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:23
  6. Electric currents flowing in the terrestrial ionosphere have conventionally been diagnosed by low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites equipped with science-grade magnetometers and long booms on magnetically clean sat...

    Authors: Jaeheung Park, Claudia Stolle, Yosuke Yamazaki, Jan Rauberg, Ingo Michaelis and Nils Olsen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:162
  7. In this study, we have derived field-aligned currents (FACs) from magnetometers onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Project (DMSP) satellites. The magnetic latitude versus local time distribution of F...

    Authors: Chao Xiong, Claudia Stolle, Patrick Alken and Jan Rauberg
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:147
  8. We describe and discuss the preprocessing and calibration steps applied to the magnetic data measured by the three “platform magnetometers” on-board the CryoSat-2 satellite. The calibration is performed by com...

    Authors: Nils Olsen, Giuseppe Albini, Jerome Bouffard, Tommaso Parrinello and Lars Tøffner-Clausen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:48