Humanity has the ability to control the environment within which it resides. In day-to-day life, humans interact with different beings cohabiting their world. These interactions can sometimes be harmful or destructive to living beings and humans, and as a result, humanity has developed techniques, weapons and sophisticated technological instruments to help reduce the threat. Despite technological advances, we are continuously exposed to new challenges, and constantly face biological threats within our environment. Viruses are one such threat. Invisible to the human eye, they live in the air, soil, and water and on material surfaces and are responsible for a number of diseases that kill millions of people. Most recently, the rise of a new strain of coronavirus SARS-COV-2 developed into a pandemic that claimed over 200,000 lives between its first documented case in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and May 1, 2020.
To combat these invisible enemies, we rely on the study of their behaviors in laboratories, analysis, and prediction. To perform the analysis and prediction, observed facts are converted into models using mathematical tools, including, differentiation, integration and statistical approaches. These models are analyzed and solved analytically or numerically for prediction using some obtained parameters and initial conditions. This present special issue is devoted to a collection of latest results from theoretical to application on research based on infectious diseases.
Edited by: Abdon Atangana, Muhammad Altaf Khan, Jose Francisco Gomez Aguila, Dumitru Baleanu, Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo, Abdullahi Yusuf