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Materials science

Rapid Communication
New Content ItemFracture as a material sink

Cracks are created by massive breakage of molecular or atomic bonds. The latter, in its turn, leads to the highly localized loss of material, which is the reason why even closed cracks are visible by a naked eye. Thus, fracture can be interpreted as the local material sink. Mass conservation is violated locally in the area of material failure. We consider a theoretical formulation of the coupled mass and momenta balance equations for a description of fracture. Our focus is on brittle fracture and we propose a finite strain hyperelastic thermodynamic framework for the coupled mass-flow-elastic boundary value problem. The attractiveness of the proposed framework as compared to the traditional continuum damage theories is that no internal parameters (like damage variables, phase fields, etc.) are used while the regularization of the failure localization is provided by the physically sound law of mass balance.
K. Y. Volokh
Materials Theory

Materials Theory
New Content ItemSmartphone citizen science: can a conservation hypothesis be tested using non specialist technology?
The work presented here, describes a citizen science scoping study using accessible stand-alone smartphone technology. Paper discolouration in a single journal type, the Wagga Wagga Daily Advertiser published from the dates 1876–2004 was chosen as the focus of study, with a specific hypothesis to be tested; that the wartime journals were more discoloured by yellowing due to them being accessed more frequently. A series of measurements were carried out with a smartphone device using the camera to act as a colorimeter and converting the CIE L xy vector length into a yellowing parameter Y. A number of preliminary attempts were made to recreate conditions that corresponded to the measurements of Y using a conventional spectrophotometer, this was by standardising distance from object and through a number of lighting conditions. It was found that the most consistently comparable results (with an offset) could be obtained using an iPhone 6S with the light source from an additional iPhone with sample to aperture distance of 4 cm. Both studies showed that the large increase in Y occurred in journals printed around 1912 with a plateau of elevated Y value detected in journals until the 1950s after which the Y parameter decreased until 2004. This indicates the frequency access hypothesis to be false and this negative proof was able to be evidenced by the data collected by the iPhone. It would be suggested that great care needs to be taken if such an approach of stand-alone measurement were to be taken into citizen science; training and testing would need to be undertaken, because of the challenge of reproducibility and the risk of sampling irreplaceable objects.
T. Wess
Heritage Science
New Content ItemHeritage Science
New Content ItemNatural graft tissues and synthetic biomaterials for periodontal and alveolar bone reconstructive applications: a review
...Periodontal disease is categorized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Over the years, there have been several clinical techniques and material options that been investigated for periodontal defect repair/regeneration. The development of improved biomaterials for periodontal tissue engineering has significantly improved the available treatment options and their clinical results. Bone replacement graft materials, barrier membranes, various growth factors and combination of these have been used. The available bone tissue replacement materials commonly used include autografts, allografts, xenografts and alloplasts. These graft materials mostly function as osteogenic, osteoinductive and/or osteoconductive scaffolds. Polymers (natural and synthetic) are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) applications. They work on the principle of epithelial cell exclusion to allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect before the normally faster epithelial cells. However, in an attempt to overcome complications related to the epithelial down-growth and/or collapse of the non-rigid barrier membrane and to maintain space, clinicians commonly use a combination of membranes with hard tissue grafts. This article aims to review various available natural tissues and biomaterial based bone replacement graft and membrane options used in periodontal regeneration applications.

Zeeshan Sheikh, Nader Hamdan, Yuichi Ikeda, March Grynpas, Berhnhard Ganss, and Michael Glogauer

Biomaterials Research

New Content Item​​​​​​​Biomaterials Research
New Content ItemMachine learning as a tool for classifying electron tomographic reconstructions

Electron tomographic reconstructions often contain artifacts from sources such as noise in the projections and a “missing wedge” of projection angles which can hamper quantitative analysis. We present a machine-learning approach using freely available software for analyzing imperfect reconstructions to be used in place of the more traditional thresholding based on grey-level technique and show that a properly trained image classifier can achieve manual levels of accuracy even on heavily artifacted data, though if multiple reconstructions are being processed, a separate classifier will need to be trained on each reconstruction for maximum accuracy.

Lech Staniewicz and Paul A. Midgley

Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging

New Content ItemAdvanced Structural and Chemical Imaging

New Content ItemAnalysis on the effect of ZnO on Carbon nanotube by spray pyrolysis method

Background
ZnO/CNT nanocomposites were prepared using Zinc acetate source materials and with the assistance of copper plate, glycine and sugar solution. The combined behavior between these two materials may give rise to the production of advanced materials with a wide range of applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

Methods
The ZnO-CNT nanostructures are successfully prepared by simple perfume spray pyrolysis method on copper substrate. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO-CNT nanocrystals formation by this method has been tried to explore the sensor and optical properties has been demonstrated.

Results
The as-synthesized ZnO-CNT nanostructures were characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern measured with Cu Kα radiation. Studies of the morphologies of the ZnO-coated CNTs revealed no significant change in the internal structures single walled graphite sheets and the diameters of the CNTs, but the ZnO appeared to form a layer of thinfilm single crystalline particles attaching to the surface of the nanotubes. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements excited by the 380 nm were done at room temperature. CNTs are easy to be entangled and agglomerate due to their long length and low diffusive mobility in base fluids.

Conclusion
The lower mobility was found to occur for the ZnO/CNT composite where a linear sensitivity behavior was measured and it reaches high at the temperature of 200 °C. The samples luminescence is dominated by well-structured ultraviolet band emission and almost no deep level emission was observed, revealing a high optical quality of the produced structures.

A. Ayeshamariam, D. Saravanakkumar, M. Kashif, S. Sivaranjani and B. Ravikumar

Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Modern Processes

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Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Modern Processes

Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

Nano Express
New Content ItemSynthesis, Characterization, and Microwave Absorption Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Strontium Ferrite/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Strontium ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and reduced graphene oxide/strontium ferrite/polyaniline (R-GO/SF/PANI) ternary nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the ternary nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), TEM, Raman, and VSM. The microwave-absorbing properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. TEM photographs reveal that strontium ferrite nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surfaces of R-GO sheets. The R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposite exhibited the best absorption property with the optimum matching thickness of 1.5 mm in the frequency of 2–18 GHz. The value of the maximum RL was −45.00 dB at 16.08 GHz with the 5.48-GHz bandwidth. The excellent absorption properties of R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposites indicated their great potential as microwave-absorbing materials.

Juhua Luo, Pan Shen, Wei Yao, Cuifeng Jiang, and Jianguang Xu

Nanoscale Research Letters

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Nanoscale Research Letters

Nano Express

New Content ItemDilute Magnetic Semiconductor and Half-Metal Behaviors in 3d Transition-Metal Doped Black and Blue Phosphorenes: A First-Principles Study

We present first-principles density-functional calculations for the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of substitutional 3d transition metal (TM) impurities in two-dimensional black and blue phosphorenes. We find that the magnetic properties of such substitutional impurities can be understood in terms of a simple model based on the Hund’s rule. The TM-doped black phosphorenes with Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni impurities show dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) properties while those with Sc and Co impurities show nonmagnetic properties. On the other hand, the TM-doped blue phosphorenes with V, Cr, Mn, and Fe impurities show DMS properties, with Ni impurity showing half-metal properties, whereas Sc- and Co-doped systems show nonmagnetic properties. We identify two different regimes depending on the occupation of the hybridized electronic states of TM and phosphorous atoms: (i) bonding states are completely empty or filled for Sc- and Co-doped black and blue phosphorenes, leading to nonmagnetic; (ii) non-bonding d states are partially occupied for Ti-, V-, Cr-, Mn-, Fe- and Ni-doped black and blue phosphorenes, giving rise to large and localized spin moments. These results provide a new route for the potential applications of dilute magnetic semiconductor and half-metal in spintronic devices by employing black and blue phosphorenes.

Weiyang Yu, Zhili Zhu, Chun-Yao Niu, Chong Li, JunHyung Cho, and Yu Jia

Nanoscale Research Letters

Neuer Inhalt
Nanoscale Research Letters

New Content ItemRice husk-originating silicon–graphite composites for advanced lithium ion battery anodes

Rice husk is produced in a massive amount worldwide as a byproduct of rice cultivation. Rice husk contains approximately 20 wt% of mesoporous SiO2. We produce mesoporous silicon (Si) by reducing the rice husk-originating SiO2 using a magnesio-milling process. Taking advantage of meso-porosity and large available quantity, we apply rice husk-originating Si to lithium ion battery anodes in a composite form with commercial graphite. By varying the mass ratio between these two components, trade-off relation between specific capacity and cycle life was observed. A controllable pre-lithiation scheme was adopted to increase the initial Coulombic efficiency and energy density. The series of electrochemical results suggest that rice husk-originating Si–graphite composites are promising candidates for high capacity lithium ion battery anodes, with the prominent advantages in battery performance and scalability.

Hye Jin Kim, Jin Hyeok Choi, and Jang Wook Choi

Nano Convergence

New Content Item
Nano Convergence

New Content ItemA Review on Graphene-Based Gas/Vapor Sensors with Unique Properties and Potential Applications

Graphene-based gas/vapor sensors have attracted much attention in recent years due to their variety of structures, unique sensing performances, room-temperature working conditions, and tremendous application prospects, etc. Herein, we summarize recent advantages in graphene preparation, sensor construction, and sensing properties of various graphene-based gas/vapor sensors, such as NH3, NO2, H2, CO, SO2, H2S, as well as vapor of volatile organic compounds. The detection mechanisms pertaining to various gases are also discussed. In conclusion part, some existing problems which may hinder the sensor applications are presented. Several possible methods to solve these problems are proposed, for example, conceived solutions, hybrid nanostructures, multiple sensor arrays, and new recognition algorithm.

Tao Wang, Da Huang, Zhi Yang, Shusheng Xu, Guili He, Xiaolin Li, Nantao Hu, Guilin Yin, and Liying Zhang

Nano-Micro Letters

New Content Item
Nano-Micro Letters

New Content ItemRecent advances in unveiling active sites in molybdenum sulfide-based electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction

In this paper, we report highly conductive, highly flexible, light weight and low cost printed graphene for wireless wearable communications applications. As a proof of concept, printed graphene enabled transmission lines and antennas on paper substrates were designed, fabricated and characterized. To explore its potentials in wearable communications applications, mechanically flexible transmission lines and antennas under various bended cases were experimentally studied. The measurement results demonstrate that the printed graphene can be used for RF signal transmitting, radiating and receiving, which represents some of the essential functionalities of RF signal processing in wireless wearable communications systems...

Bora Seo and Sang Hoon Joo

Nano Convergence 

New Content Item
Nano Convergence

Physics and optics of materials

New Content ItemSilicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

The emergence of coherent quantum feedback control (CQFC) as a new paradigm for precise manipulation of dynamics of complex quantum systems has led to the development of efficient theoretical modeling and simulation tools and opened avenues for new practical implementations. This work explores the applicability of the integrated silicon photonics platform for implementing scalable CQFC networks. If proven successful, on-chip implementations of these networks would provide scalable and efficient nanophotonic components for autonomous quantum information processing devices and ultra-low-power optical processing systems at telecommunications wavelengths. We analyze the strengths of the silicon photonics platform for CQFC applications and identify the key challenges to both the theoretical formalism and experimental implementations. In particular, we determine specific extensions to the theoretical CQFC framework (which was originally developed with bulk-optics implementations in mind), required to make it fully applicable to modeling of linear and nonlinear integrated optics networks. We also report the results of a preliminary experiment that studied the performance of an in situ controllable silicon nanophotonic network of two coupled cavities and analyze the properties of this device using the CQFC formalism.

Mohan Sarovar, Daniel BS Soh, Jonathan Cox, Constantin Brif, Christopher T. DeRose, Ryan Camacho, and Paul Davids

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EPJ Qua
ntum Technology
New Content ItemMachine learning as a tool for classifying electron tomographic reconstructions

Electron tomographic reconstructions often contain artifacts from sources such as noise in the projections and a “missing wedge” of projection angles which can hamper quantitative analysis. We present a machine-learning approach using freely available software for analyzing imperfect reconstructions to be used in place of the more traditional thresholding based on grey-level technique and show that a properly trained image classifier can achieve manual levels of accuracy even on heavily artifacted data, though if multiple reconstructions are being processed, a separate classifier will need to be trained on each reconstruction for maximum accuracy.

Lech Staniewicz and Paul A. Midgley

Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging

New Content Item
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging

New Content ItemDesign and characterization of a linear quandrupole ion trap for high-resolution Coulomb-crystal time-of-flight mass spectrometry

We present and discuss in detail the design and characterization of a new linear quadrupole ion trap with additional ion ejection and acceleration electrodes that is coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Mass spectra of Coulomb crystals consisting of Ca +,CaO + and CaOH + ions were recorded with a post-ejection-acceleration scheme yielding a mass resolution of m/Δ m≈700. The second order rate constant for the reaction Ca + + N2O → CaO + + N2 was measured to test the usability of this apparatus for ion-molecule reaction studies. The rate constant was found to be 5.49(32)·10−11cm3s−1 which is compared with previous literature values. Owing to the high mass resolution achieved, the present instrument is an ideal tool for the study of the products of complex chemical reactions involving Coulomb crystals.

Daniel Rösch, Hong Gao, Ardita Kilaj, and Stefan Willitsch

​​​​​​​EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation
New Content ItemExperimental investigation of the propagation properties of bloch surface waves on dielectric multilayer platform

Background
The periodic dielectric multilayers sustaining Bloch surface waves have been proposed as a platform for the sensing applications and the two dimensional integrated optics. In this paper, we present the experimental and theoretical investigation of propagation properties of Bloch surface waves, for example propagation length and refractive index of the surface mode, at the interface of a dielectric multilayer platform. We use thin layers (~λ/25) of titanium dioxide as an additional layer of high index material.

Methods
We exploit multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy and total internal reflection configuration as a near-field and far-field characterization tools.

Results
The longest propagation length is achieved when the multilayer is designed to have the dispersion curve positioned close to the middle of the photonics band gap. We measure a Bloch surface wave mode of propagation length 3.24 mm and of an effective refractive index contrast 0.15.

Conclusions
The experimental results are in conformity with theoretical results. This study paves a way to realize efficient and compact two dimensional components and systems.

Richa Dubey, Elsi Barakat, Markus Häyrinen, Matthieu Roussey, Seppo K. Honkanen, Markku Kuittinen, and Hans Peter Herzig

​​​​​​​Journal of the European Optical SocietyRapid Publications

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New Content ItemVadim Silberschmidt

Editor-in-Chief of Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Modern Processes

...[U]nderstanding of materials behaviors under such conditions allows their optimization and prediction of resultant microstructures, properties and performance of manufactured components and structures.

​​​​​​​New Content ItemAnter el-Azab

Editor-in-Chief of Materials Theory

Convinced that open access will continue to be a rising trend in scientific publishing, it was not hard to decide to make Materials Theory an open access journal.

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